Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Jan. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation
The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), the instructions to Form 10-Q, and the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim financial information, which includes the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and presents the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries as of January 31, 2021. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. The accounting policies and procedures used in the preparation of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been derived from the audited financial statements of the Company for the year ended April 30, 2020, which are contained in the Form 10-K filed on July 13, 2020. The unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of April 30, 2020 was derived from those financial statements. It is management’s opinion that all material adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) have been made, which are necessary for a fair financial statement presentation. Operating results during the three and nine months ended January 31, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending April 30, 2021.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions
In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management is required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the consolidated balance sheet, and revenues and expenses for the period then ended. Actual results may differ significantly from those estimates. Significant estimates made by management include, but are not limited to, valuation of mineral rights, stock-based compensation, the fair value of common and preferred stock, valuation of warrants, asset retirement obligations and the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company has adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”), for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. ASC 820 establishes a common definition for fair value to be applied in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which requires the use of fair value measurements, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure about such fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Additionally, ASC 820 requires the use of valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
These inputs are prioritized below:
The Company analyzes all financial instruments with features of both liabilities and equity under the Financial Accounting Standard Board’s (“FASB”) accounting standard for such instruments. Under this standard, financial assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
At January 31, 2021 and April 30, 2020, the Company had no financial instruments or liabilities accounted for at fair value on a recurring basis or nonrecurring basis.
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets of $368,119 and $212,718 at January 31, 2021 and April 30, 2020, respectively, consist primarily of costs paid for future services which will occur within a year. Prepaid expenses principally include prepayments in cash and equity instruments for consulting, public relations, and business advisory services, insurance premiums, mining claim fees, drilling fees, and mineral lease fees which are being amortized over the terms of their respective agreements.
Property is carried at cost. The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred; major replacements and improvements are capitalized. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the assets, generally ten years.
Impairment of long-lived assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value. The Company did not recognize any impairment during the periods ended January 31, 2021 and April 30, 2020.
Costs of leasing, exploring, carrying and retaining unproven mineral lease properties are expensed as incurred. The Company expenses all mineral exploration costs as incurred as it is still in the exploration stage. If the Company identifies proven and probable reserves in its investigation of its properties and upon development of a plan for operating a mine, it would enter the development stage and capitalize future costs until production is established.
When a property reaches the production stage, the related capitalized costs will be amortized on a units-of-production basis over the proven and probable reserves following the commencement of production. The Company assesses the carrying costs of the capitalized mineral properties for impairment under ASC 360-10, “Impairment of Long-Lived Assets”, and evaluates its carrying value under ASC 930-360, “Extractive Activities—Mining”, annually. An impairment is recognized when the sum of the expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the mineral properties. Impairment losses, if any, are measured as the excess of the carrying amount of the mineral properties over its estimated fair value.
To date, the Company has not established the commercial feasibility of any exploration prospects; therefore, all exploration costs are being expensed.
ASC 930-805, “Extractive Activities—Mining: Business Combinations” (“ASC 930-805”), states that mineral rights consist of the legal right to explore, extract, and retain at least a portion of the benefits from mineral deposits. Mining assets include mineral rights.
Acquired mineral rights are considered tangible assets under ASC 930-805. ASC 930-805 requires that mineral rights be recognized at fair value as of the acquisition date. As a result, the direct costs to acquire mineral rights are initially capitalized as tangible assets. Mineral rights include costs associated with acquiring patented and unpatented mining claims.
ASC 930-805 provides that in measuring the fair value of mineral assets, an acquirer should take into account both:
● The value beyond proven and probable reserves (“VBPP”) to the extent that a market participant would include VBPP in determining the fair value of the assets.
● The effects of anticipated fluctuations in the future market price of minerals in a manner that is consistent with the expectations of market participants.
Leases to explore for or use of natural resources are outside the scope of ASU 2016-02, “Leases”.
Share-based compensation is accounted for based on the requirements of ASC 718, “Compensation—Stock Compensation” (“ASC 718”), which requires recognition in the financial statements of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments over the period the employee or director is required to perform the services in exchange for the award (presumptively, the vesting period). ASC 718 also requires measurement of the cost of employee and director services received in exchange for an award based on the grant-date fair value of the award. Pursuant to ASC 505, “Equity—Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees” (“ASC 505-50”), for share-based payments to consultants and other third parties, compensation expense is determined at the measurement date, which is the grant date. Until the measurement date is reached, the total amount of compensation expense remains uncertain.
ASU 2018-07 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which the grantor acquires goods and services to be used or consumed in its own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. ASU 2018-07 also clarifies that Topic 718 does not apply to share-based payments used to effectively provide (1) financing to the issuer or (2) awards granted in conjunction with selling goods or services to customers as part of a contract accounted for under ASC 606. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted, but no earlier than adoption of ASC 606. The Company chose to early adopt ASU 2018-07 in July 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Accounting for Warrants
Warrants are accounted for in accordance with the applicable accounting guidance provided in ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” (“ASC 815”) as either derivative liabilities or as equity instruments, depending on the specific terms of the agreements. The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) give the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net-cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company) or (ii) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). Instruments that are classified as liabilities are recorded at fair value at each reporting period, with any change in fair value recognized as a component of change in fair value of derivative liabilities in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company assessed the classification of its outstanding common stock purchase warrants as of the date of issuance and determined that such instruments met the criteria for equity classification under the guidance in ASU 2017-11 “Earnings Per Share (Topic 260); Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480); Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Feature”. The Company has no outstanding warrants that contain a “down round” feature under Topic 815 of ASU 2017-11.
Convertible Preferred Stock
The Company accounts for its convertible preferred stock under the provisions of ASC 480, “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity” (“ASC 480”), which sets forth the standards for how an issuer classifies and measures certain financial instruments with characteristics of both liabilities and equity. ASC 480 requires an issuer to classify a financial instrument that is within the scope of ASC 480 as a liability if such financial instrument embodies an unconditional obligation to redeem the instrument at a specified date and/or upon an event certain to occur. During the periods ended January 31, 2021 and April 30, 2020, the Company’s outstanding convertible preferred shares were accounted for as equity, with no liability recorded.
The Company bifurcates conversion options from their host instruments and accounts for them as free standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria includes circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument. An exception to this rule when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional as that term is described under applicable U.S. GAAP.
When the Company has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments, the Company records, when necessary, a beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”) related to the issuance of convertible debt and equity instruments that have conversion features at fixed rates that are in-the-money when issued, and the fair value of warrants issued in connection with those instruments. The BCF for the convertible instruments is recognized and measured by allocating a portion of the proceeds to warrants, based on their relative fair value, and as a reduction to the carrying amount of the convertible instrument equal to the intrinsic value of the conversion feature. The discounts recorded in connection with the BCF and warrant valuation are recognized (a) for convertible debt as interest expense over the term of the debt, using the effective interest method or (b) for convertible preferred stock as dividends at the time the stock first becomes convertible.
Remediation and Asset Retirement Obligation
Asset retirement obligations (“ARO”), consisting primarily of estimated reclamation costs at the Company’s CK Gold and Keystone properties, are recognized in the period incurred and when a reasonable estimate can be made, and recorded as liabilities at fair value. Such obligations, which are initially estimated based on discounted cash flow estimates, are accreted to full value over time through charges to accretion expense. Corresponding asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the related long-lived asset and depreciated over the asset’s remaining useful life. AROs are periodically adjusted to reflect changes in the estimated present value resulting from revisions to the estimated timing or amount of reclamation and closure costs. The Company reviews and evaluates its AROs annually or more frequently at interim periods if deemed necessary.
Foreign Currency Transactions
The reporting and functional currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing on the transaction dates. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date with any transaction gains and losses that arise from exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency included in the results of operations as incurred. Transaction gains or losses have not had, and are not expected to have, a material effect on the results of operations of the Company and are included in general and administrative expenses.
The Company accounts for income taxes pursuant to the provision of ASC 740-10, “Accounting for Income Taxes” (“ASC 740-10”), which requires, among other things, an asset and liability approach to calculating deferred income taxes. The asset and liability approach requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax bases of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is provided to offset any net deferred tax assets for which management believes it is more likely than not that the net deferred asset will not be realized.
The Company follows the provision of ASC 740-10, “Accounting for Uncertain Income Tax Positions” (“ASC 740-10”). When tax returns are filed, there may be uncertainty about the merits of positions taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. In accordance with the guidance of ASC 740-10, the benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions.
Tax positions that meet the more likely than not recognition threshold are measured at the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefit associated with tax positions taken that exceed the amount measured as described above should be reflected as a liability for uncertain tax benefits in the accompanying balance sheet along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination. The Company believes its tax positions are all more likely than not to be upheld upon examination. As such, the Company has not recorded a liability for uncertain tax benefits.
The Company has adopted ASC 740-10-25, “Definition of Settlement”, which provides guidance on how an entity should determine whether a tax position is effectively settled for the purpose of recognizing previously unrecognized tax benefits and provides that a tax position can be effectively settled upon the completion and examination by a taxing authority without being legally extinguished. For tax positions considered effectively settled, an entity would recognize the full amount of tax benefit, even if the tax position is not considered more likely than not to be sustained based solely on the basis of its technical merits and the statute of limitations remains open. The federal and state income tax returns of the Company are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities, generally for three years after they are filed.
The Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets include a tax refund receivable of $219,072 as of the periods ended January 31, 2021 and April 30, 2020, under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 for carryovers of previously paid alternative minimum tax by Dataram Corporation.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material effect on the financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an effect on or are unrelated to its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” This guidance, among other provisions, eliminates certain exceptions to existing guidance related to the approach for intra-period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. This guidance also requires an entity to reflect the effect of an enacted change in tax laws or rates in its effective income tax rate in the first interim period that includes the enactment date of the new legislation, aligning the timing of recognition of the effects from enacted tax law changes on the effective income tax rate with the effects on deferred income tax assets and liabilities. Under existing guidance, an entity recognizes the effects of the enacted tax law change on the effective income tax rate in the period that includes the effective date of the tax law. ASU 2019-12 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), which eliminates the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models for convertible instruments, amends the accounting for certain contracts in an entity’s own equity that are currently accounted for as derivatives because of specific settlement provisions, and modifies how particular convertible instruments and certain contracts that may be settled in cash or shares impact the diluted EPS calculation. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those reporting periods. The standard can be adopted under the modified retrospective method or the full retrospective method. The guidance will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-09, Debt (Topic 470) - Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Release No. 33-10762, or ASU 2020-09, to reflect the SEC’s amended disclosure rules for guaranteed debt securities offerings. The final rule amends the disclosure requirements in SEC Regulation S-X, Rule 3-10, which require entities to separately present financial statements for subsidiary issuers and guarantors of registered debt securities unless certain exceptions are met. The amended rule allows entities to provide summarized financial information of the parent company and its issuers and guarantors on a combined basis either in a note to the financial statements or as part of management’s discussion and analysis. ASU 2020-09 is effective for filings on or after January 4, 2021, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the guidance did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef